Sleep Well, Work Well: Three Studies
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My dissertation explores the relationship between sleep and work, with attention to how sleep impacts work-related outcomes. Study 1 extended the current work stress and sleep literature by examining the reciprocal relationship between sleep and work stress within the job demands-control-social support model of work stress. The reciprocal relationship was tested using five-wave longitudinal data. This cross-lagged model was partially supported, as sleep impacted perceptions of work stress across the five wave study, whereas work stress affecting sleep was marginally significant across the five wave study. Study 2 examined the influence of sleep on both positive (i.e., transformational leadership) and negative (i.e., abusive supervision) leadership behaviors. I hypothesized that sleep influences leadership indirectly through its effects on self-control. To examine the indirect relationship between sleep and leadership behaviors, a daily diary study methodology was used, where leaders described their daily sleep and self-control and followers rated their leaders’ leadership behaviors. A multilevel structural equation model was used to test these mediational models. There was support for sleep affecting abusive supervision through self-control across the 15 day daily study, however this relationship was not supported for transformational leadership. Study 3 examined the impact of a common sleep disorder (obstructive sleep apnea; OSA) on work withdrawal behaviors. To examine this relationship, a sample of individuals attending an overnight sleep laboratory, with possible OSA were recruited. A within-subjects, pre-test, post-test design was used, where individuals completed a survey before and then two times after they received clinical treatment for their sleep disorder. Latent growth curve modeling was used to test this relationship. Findings show that daytime sleepiness caused by OSA effects withdrawal from work (partial absenteeism and absenteeism). Daytime sleepiness also lead to withdrawal at work (work neglect) through cognitive depletion. In addition, receiving treatment for sleep apnea decreased daytime sleepiness across time, and this improvement in daytime sleepiness resulted in decreased withdrawal from and at work over time; the indirect effects of the improvements in daytime sleepiness on withdrawal at work was mediated by improvements in cognitive depletion. The dissertation closes with a general discussion of the contributions of these three studies.