Ascertaining the factors responsible for the phenomenon of organized crime in Canada and India
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This thesis ascertains the factors that are responsible for the phenomenon of organized crime in Canada and India and suggests necessary measures for combating the same. The thesis explores the concept of organized crime, its history, threat perception, experience of the two countries and analyzes the effectiveness and critique of the legislations adopted in the direction. The thesis also analyzes the whole scenario in Canada and India in order to determine the factors behind the phenomenon. In the process, available literature as well as statistical data and information available on the web addresses of concerned governmental departments and agencies is reviewed to arrive at an understanding of the scenario from perspective of a developed and a developing country. The thesis concludes that ineffective legislative measures coupled with corruption and the social reality that there is a market for illegal products is responsible for the phenomenon of organized crime in Canada and India. Moreover, overemphasis on legislative and enforcement measures has been ineffective as a solution for the problem. The factors responsible for the phenomenon in the two countries can be classified into legislative inadequacies, societal preferences and secondary factors such as lack of study of political corruption, criminalization of politics, lack of political will, lack of research initiative in the area and abuse of provisions. Apart from overcoming the shortcomings of legislative measures, it is necessary to adopt a holistic approach to fight the phenomenon. The measures in the said direction include emphasis on preventive measures, creating public awareness to obligate public policy, overhauling of criminal justice system, revising and improving enforcement agencies’ training manuals, and revising the pay scales of police personnel.