The Relationship between Hospital Infection Surveillance and Control Activities and Antibiotic Resistant Pathogen Rates
Ford, B. Douglas
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Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of surveillance and control activities in Canadian hospitals with rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods: Surveys were sent to Infection Control programs in hospitals that participated in an earlier survey of infection control practices in Canadian acute care hospitals. Results: One hundred and twenty of 145 (82.8%) hospitals responded to the survey. The mean MRSA rate was 2.0 (SD 2.9) per 1,000 admissions, the mean CDAD rate was 3.8 (SD 4.3), and the mean VRE rate was 0.4 (SD 1.5). Multiple stepwise regression analysis found hospitals that reported infection rates by specific risk groups (r = - 0.27, p < 0.01) and that kept attendance records of infection control teaching activities (r = - 0.23, p < 0.01) were associated with lower MRSA rates. Multiple stepwise regression analysis found larger hospitals (r = 0.25, p < 0.01) and hospitals where infection control committees or staff had the direct authority to close a ward or unit to further admissions due to outbreaks (r = 0.22, p < 0.05) were associated with higher CDAD rates. Multiple logistic regression analysis found larger hospitals (OR = 1.6, CI 1.2 - 2.0, p = 0.003) and teaching hospitals (OR = 3.7, CI 1.2 - 11.8, p = 0.02) were associated with the presence of VRE. Hospitals were less likely to have VRE when infection control staff frequently contacted physicians and nurses for reports of new infections (OR = 0.5, CI 0.3 - 0.7, p = 0.02) and there were in-service programs for updating nursing and ancillary staff on current infection control practices (OR = 0.2, CI 0.1 - 0.7, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Surveillance and control activities were associated with MRSA and CDAD rates and the presence of VRE. Surveillance and control activities might be especially beneficial in large and teaching hospitals.