A STUDY OF ENERGY, CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND ECONOMICS IN MACHINING: MILLING AND SINGLE POINT INCREMENTAL FORMING
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A simple model that includes energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the economics of machining is proposed, which has been published in the highly respected and cited journal, Annals of CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). This is a timely analysis in current government discussions on a proposed carbon tax or a carbon cap and trade regime and greater energy efficiency. The new cost model is based on life cycle analysis methodology for the initial part production. An illustrative example is given showing that the cheapest electrical grid should not be chosen, if it also has the highest CO2 emissions. Accurate pricing is important, because the more expensive product was highly dependent on the carbon price. A comprehensive review of machining economic models is covered. However, there is a dearth of actual machining data in the literature. This work includes studies in milling and single point incremental forming (SPIF) which can be used by other manufacturing engineers in their machining economic model development. The first milling study involved simple straight cuts. In general, as feed rate (FD) increased (increasing the material removal rate, MRR), the energy consumed decreased as process time decreased. In contrast, as spindle speed (N) increased, energy consumed increased, since more power is drawn by the motor, without a process time reduction. Given the inverse power relationship observed for the time, energy, process CO2 and cost against MRR, the recommended parameters were the same at the highest FD and lowest N permissible. In the second milling study with constant N for a more complex part (sprocket), similar relationships were observed. However, for sprockets made at constant chip load (allowing FD and N to change together), there were varying prescribed MRRs for time, energy, process CO2 and cost minimization. The SPIF studies showed a similar relationship to the constant N milling, and, that results for a simple part can be extrapolated to improve efficiency in more complex parts. Finally, although the energy and carbon costs represented a small contribution to the final cost, their significance increased for higher efficiency parameters or user conditions, e.g. low labour rate.