Nonlinear Modeling of Inertial Errors by Fast Orthogonal Search Algorithm for Low Cost Vehicular Navigation
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Due to their complementary characteristics, Global Positioning System (GPS) is usually integrated with standalone navigation devices like odometers and inertial measurement units (IMU). Recently, intensive research has focused on utilizing Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) grade inertial sensors in the integration because of their low cost. In this study, a reduced inertial sensor system (RISS) is considered. It comprises a MEMS grade single axis gyroscope, the vehicle built-in odometer, and two optional MEMS grade accelerometers. Estimation technique is needed to allow the data fusion of RISS and GPS. With adequate accuracy, Kalman filter (KF) fulfills this requirement if high-end inertial sensors are used. However, due to the inherent error characteristics of MEMS devices, MEMS-based RISS suffers from the non-stationary stochastic sensor errors and nonlinear inertial errors, which cannot be suppressed by KF alone. To solve the problem, Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS), a nonlinear system identification algorithm, is suggested in this research for modeling higher order RISS errors. FOS algorithm has the ability to figure out the system nonlinearity with a tolerance of arbitrary stochastic system noise. Its modeling results can then be used to predict the system dynamics. Motivated by the above merits, a KF/FOS module is proposed. By handling both linear and nonlinear RISS errors, this module targets substantial enhancement of positioning accuracy. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed technique, KF/FOS module is applied on RISS with GPS in a land vehicle for several road test trajectories. Its performance is compared to KF-only method, both assessed with respect to a high-end reference. To evaluate navigation algorithm in real-time vehicle application, a multi-sensor data logger is designed in this research to collect online RISS/GPS data. KF/FOS module is transplanted on an embedded digital signal processor as well. Both the off-line and online results confirm that KF/FOS module outperforms KF-only approach in positioning accuracy. They also demonstrate reliable real-time performance.