Dense Particle Cloud Dispersion by a Shock Wave
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High-speed particle dispersion research is motivated by the energy release enhancement of explosives containing solid particles. In the initial explosive dispersal, a dense gas-solid flow can exist where the physics of phase interactions are not well understood. A dense particle flow is generated by the interaction of a shock wave with an initially stationary packed granular bed. The initial packed granular bed is produced by compressing loose aluminum oxide powder into a 6.35 mm thick wafer with a particle volume fraction of 0.48. The wafer is positioned inside the shock tube, uniformly filling the entire cross-section. This results in a clean experiment where no flow obstructing support structures are present. Through high-speed shadowgraph imaging and pressure measurements along the length of the channel, detailed information about the particle-shock interaction was obtained. Due to the limited strength of the Mach 2 incident shock wave, no transmitted shock wave is produced. The initial “solid-like” response of the particle wafer acceleration forms a series of compression waves that coalesce to form a shock wave. Breakup is initiated along the periphery of the wafer as the result of shear that forms due to the fixed boundary condition. Particle break-up starts at local failure sites that result in the formation of particle jets that extend ahead of the accelerating, largely intact, wafer core. In a circular tube the failure sites are uniformly distributed along the wafer circumference. In a square channel, the failure sites, and the subsequent particle jets, initially form at the corners due to the enhanced shear. The wafer breakup subsequently spreads to the edges forming a highly non-uniform particle cloud.