QSpace: Queen's Scholarship & Digital Collections

QSpace is an open access repository for scholarship and research produced at Queen's University. QSpace offers faculty, students, staff, and researchers a free and secure home to preserve and present their scholarship.

Recent Submissions

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    Landscapes of conflict: Heritage of the Rideau Canal & Kingston Fortifications World Heritage Site
    (2024-05-24) Bazely, Susan; Geography and Planning; Bevan, George
    When inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2007, the Rideau Canal and the Kingston Fortifications were joined in a single site, but occupy geographically, historically, and phenomenologically different spaces. The inscription, driven by the parochial concerns of property owners along the canal, not by pre-existing federal heritage priorities, deters further development, but perpetuates an ultimately misleading impression of the canal and fortifications. The prevailing narrative sees the canal as an engineering marvel that with the fortifications kept British North America free from American annexation, a fear at the heart of Northrop Frye’s Canadian ‘garrison mentality’. Through a selective use of the visual record — mainly watercolours by British officers contemporary with the construction —, the canal is seen as a tranquil waterway, the preserve of isolated canoeists, not a corridor for steam-powered vessels towing barges, the intended users of the Rideau. It is no surprise then, that the site is today poorly understood by visitors and locals in Kingston, who struggle to connect a canal beyond the urban core with a fortification embedded within a still militarized space, set apart from everyday life. Without strong local understanding of the past connection between the canal and fortifications, one rooted in historical geography, the future protection of both, against a bewildering patchwork of government jurisdictions, and development pressures is uncertain. This dissertation situates the Rideau Canal within the history of British canal construction in its era and shows it as a ‘successful failure’. Certainly an engineering marvel, it was never put into operation militarily, and failed as an economic corridor. It did not lead to canal construction in Canada that used John By’s innovative slackwater techniques and represents an engineering ‘dead end’. Similarly, Kingston’s fortifications never saw action like other major Canadian fortifications but were built and maintained as a bulwark against a feared American expansion that never materialized. Analysis of their development, show that rather than state of the art defenses against an imminent threat, they were constructed mainly as a training exercise during a lull in global British fort-building, and not updated adequately to address the evolving American threat. This re-evaluation of the geography and history of the canal and fortifications does not diminish their heritage value, or global level recognition, but is a starting point for new more inclusive counter-narratives in the 21st century.
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    Network Analysis to Identify Biological Pathways Associated with Lyme Disease
    (2024-05-23) Anand, Shreyansh; Computing; Duan, Qingling; Colautti, Robert
    Lyme disease (LD) was the most common vector-borne pathogen in the United States from 2004-2016 and is mainly caused by the spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdoferi sensu stricto, spreading through tick bites. It has different symptoms such as neurological issues, inflammation, and arthritis. The etiology of the disease is not well known, with a significant number of patients having long-term symptoms posttreatment with little understanding of why. Current testing is also unreliable with the most common method - the two-tier serological test - having false negative results reaching 39%. Furthermore, previous studies have focused on univariate analysis potentially missing additive gene effects. I analyzed two different datasets containing Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) based RNA-Sequencing data longitudinally collected from LD patients living in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The first dataset had 72 patients and the latter had 29, both contained data from diagnosis and post-antibiotic treatment. I used Whole Genome Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA) along with univariate analysis and enrichment analysis to identify potential pathways of interest generating novel hypotheses for the underlying mechanisms of LD. I identified specific T-Cell-based inflammatory, arthritic and neurological pathways that were significantly elevated in LD patients and other elevated pathways that are commonly associated with symptoms found in different infectious diseases consistent with co-infections. The specific pathways and genes identified can be used as a basis for further research on the genetic mechanisms of LD. The impact of these findings can lead to the development of unique genetic biomarkers which can replace the current unreliable testing methods as well as be used for targeted therapy which can focus on the specific pathways & genes identified.
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    Through the Fire and Flames
    (2024-05-23) Bernicky, Adam Robert; Chemistry; Loock, Hans-Peter; Davis, Boyd
    Industrial copper smelting is a popular pyrometallurgical process that enriches the concentration of copper in concentrated mineral ores. The composition of these ores vary depending on their geographical origin and form the feedstock for a flash furnace. Currently, only limited technologies are available to determine the compositional information of feed materials, and process control is impossible. A new method of compositional analysis for process control in industrial copper smelting is presented in this thesis. The development of a flame emission system (patent-pending) using a high-temperature acetylene burner to measure the elemental composition and mineralogy of a powdered feed material without sample preparation is described. A spectrometer records the flame emission spectrum several times a second. An analysis of the spectral features revealed atomic and molecular emission features related to the composition of the material. The analysis is complicated by the blackbody background, the many short-lived species in the flame, and inner-filter effects that prevented the extraction of quantitative information from conventional spectroscopic analysis. A comparison of supervised and unsupervised models and spectral preprocessing techniques was conducted to predict the composition of powdered materials from complex emission data. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm was appropriately trained on over 8700 spectra collected from 47 industrially relevant powdered samples with well-characterized chemical and physical properties. The ANN provides a robust prediction of the elemental and mineralogical composition, in addition to the particle size distribution of concentrate composition, with an approximate accuracy of less than 1% (m/mtotal), 2 % (m/mtotal), and 1 um, respectively. It was 3-times more accurate than the PLS models. Furthermore, an ANN parameter analysis revealed that predictors of greatest influence can be related back to known spectral features. An additional study on the combustion of copper concentrates using a lab-scale drop tower reactor is described. A complete elemental and mineralogical analysis of the concentrates before and after combustion allowed for the development of a preliminary PLS model to describe the desulphurization characteristics of concentrated sulphide ores based on their fractional mineralogy and, with continued training, could be used to predict the combustion of new blends.
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    A pilot study to assess feasibility of evaluating the safety and efficiency of a simplified diagnostic approach for pulmonary embolism
    (2024-05-23) Morris, Nicole Faith; Translational Medicine; de Wit, Kerstin
    Background: Decision rules designed to reduce the need for pulmonary embolism (PE) imaging are seldom used by emergency physicians because of their complexity and poor credibility. We designed a simple, modified age-adjusted decision rule for PE testing in the emergency department (ED) – the ‘Adjust-Unlikely’ rule. Given increasing pressure on EDs, alternative methods to in-person recruitment are needed to validate the diagnostic performance of the Adjust-Unlikely rule in a full-scale study. Objectives: The primary objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of a protocol consenting patients tested for suspected PE with the Adjust-Unlikely rule by telephone after they left the ED. The secondary objectives were to estimate safety and efficiency of the Adjust-Unlikely rule for diagnosing PE in the ED and to assess whether our methods introduced spectrum bias. Methods: A prospective management pilot study was conducted in one ED and one urgent care centre. Adult patients tested for PE using the Adjust-Unlikely rule were recruited by telephone and followed for 90 days to identify subsequent testing for venous thromboembolism. PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) testing during follow-up was independently adjudicated. The feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, missed eligible rate and overall follow-up rate. To assess for spectrum bias, multivariable logistic regression was used to compare included patients to missed eligible patients and patients who declined participation. Results: Two hundred patients were included. On average, 9 patients were recruited per site, per week and 6 patients were missed per site, per week. The overall follow-up rate was 96.5%. Of the 143 patients with a negative Adjust-Unlikely rule on index visit, 1 patient was diagnosed with PE during follow-up. We found evidence of spectrum bias in our study population. Female patients and older patients were over-represented in our study population compared to patients who were eligible but not included. Conclusions: Telephone recruitment did not meet our predefined thresholds for feasibility. This research has informed the design and planning of a full-scale study that will prospectively validate the safety and efficiency of the Adjust-Unlikely rule for diagnosing PE in the ED across Ontario.
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    Children's Sharing Behaviour in the Virtual Environment
    (2024-05-23) Pinheiro, Sylvia Galvao de Vasconcelos; Psychology; Kuhlmeier, Valerie
    Sharing is a key prosocial behaviour for human success as a species. Its development within different contexts, however, is still poorly investigated. A timely and important question regards the similarity between our prosocial behaviours in virtual environments and those in person, given the near ubiquity of online interactions as well as the recent increase in remote testing methods for developmental science. This dissertation investigates 3.5- to 11-year-olds’s sharing behaviour online, with three specific aims: (1) examining the developmental hallmarks of sharing in a virtual experiment; (2) examining the influence of children’s subjective socioeconomic status on online sharing behaviour; and (3) assessing whether some aspects of the virtual testing environment may affect decision-making in relation to sharing and SSS. Chapter 1 reviews existing research on the development of sharing, highlighting the need to investigate sharing beyond traditional in-laboratory testing. Then, in Chapter 2, we test a virtual version of the Dictator Game. Our analyses revealed some characteristics of online sharing behaviour that are consistent with in-person situations: children share more and are more equitable after middle childhood and when the online interaction is monitored by an experimenter. However, the youngest children shared online more than what is observed in person, potentially due to differences in virtual resource value and challenges with the digital interface. Chapter 3 explores the effect of SSS on sharing patterns. We corroborated the developmental declines of SSS, with an observed alignment with caregivers’ report. Additionally, children in the low-SSS shared significantly more and in a more equitable manner than children in the high-SSS. In Chapter 4, we examine whether children’s differences in technology experience and need for assistance influence the outcomes in our testing platform. Our results suggest that while technology experience positively influenced sharing, the youngest children in the sample whose caregivers assisted during the familiarization tasks shared slightly less during the subsequent sharing tasks. Lastly, in Chapter 5, we suggest that these studies offer insights into how sharing behavior develops, discuss practical implications, and raise questions for future research.

Communities in QSpace

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  • Digital Collections
    This community includes digital collections produced by members of the Queen’s community, as well as digital special collections made available via W.D. Jordan Rare Books & Special Collections.
  • Exams & Syllabi
    This community provides access for staff and students at Queen’s University to degree examination papers and syllabi.
  • Graduate Theses, Dissertations and Projects
    This community includes graduate theses, dissertations and projects produced by students at Queen’s University.
  • Research Data
    This community includes research data produced by faculty and staff at Queen’s University.
  • Scholarly Contributions
    This community includes Queen’s peer-reviewed research publications, including journal articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, and more.