QSpace: Queen's Scholarship & Digital Collections

QSpace is an open access repository for scholarship and research produced at Queen's University. QSpace offers faculty, students, staff, and researchers a free and secure home to preserve and present their scholarship.

Recent Submissions

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    Numerical Investigation of the Structural Behavior of Corrugated Steel Culverts under Surface Load Tests using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analyses
    (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2023-01-05) Liu, Yuchen; Moore, Ian D.; Hoult, Neil A.; Lan, Haitao
    Corrugated steel pipe (CSP) culverts have been widely used for decades; however, their structural behavior under surface loading may not be correctly captured by design codes based on results from recent experimental studies. To address this, the data from nine full-scale experiments investigating the structural behavior of corrugated steel culverts with different burial depths and surface loading configurations, instrumented with distributed fiber optic strain sensors, were compared with three-dimensional finite-element analyses. Parametric studies were undertaken that included different models for the corrugation properties (i.e., explicit modeling of the corrugated geometry and orthotropic, and isotropic shell), contact between soil and pipes, and the soil properties (soil moduli and elastic and elastoplastic behavior). It was found that the orthotropic model was a good substitute for explicit modeling of the corrugated geometry, which saves computation time and still provides an accurate estimation of the thrusts and moments. The moments in the culvert were found to be sensitive to the distribution of soil moduli, whereas thrusts were not. Based on this investigation, three-dimensional analyses using orthotropic shell models, elastic soil properties with moduli varying with depth, and tie constraints between the soil and the culvert are recommended for future investigations of corrugated steel pipe responses to surface loads.
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    Laboratory Investigation of the Structural Performance of a Corrugated Steel Culvert under Increasing Cover Depth
    (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2021-04-27) Mai, Van Thien; Moore, Ian D.; Hoult, Neil A.
    The performance of large diameter corrugated steel culverts/pipes under varying cover depth up to deep burial has previously not been investigated in a laboratory setting due to limitations associated with the application of overburden pressures. Using the new deep burial simulator at Queen’s University, it is now possible to test flexible pipes up to 3 m in diameter up to a simulated burial depth of approximately 17 m. In this study, a 2-m diameter corrugated steel pipe (CSP) culvert was instrumented with displacement transducers, strain gauges, and distributed fiber optic strain sensors and was tested under increasing overburden pressure up to a total of 358 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 17.9 m of soil with a unit weight of 20 kN/m3). The diameter change values along the length of the culvert were within 10% of each other, suggesting that the simulator produces approximately uniform loading. The Canadian bridge design code produced thrust estimates within 10% of the measured response but did not predict the development of localized plastic hinges seen in the experiment.
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    Pre- and Post-rehabilitation Monitoring of a Steel Railway Bridge with Distributed and Discrete Sensors
    (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2022-02-09) Barker, Christian; Woods, Joshua; Hoult, Neil A.; Le, Hoat; Tolikonda, Vamsi
    North America’s growing demand for rail transportation capacity, in terms of both train weight and length, has raised concerns regarding the performance of older bridges and has presented the need for improved assessment technologies. A monitoring system composed of discrete and distributed strain sensors combined with a finite-element analysis (FEA) may be able to provide critical insights for assessment. One specific area of concern in older railway bridges is their ability to resist longitudinal forces generated by the braking and acceleration of modern diesel-electric engines. To investigate this, two experimental campaigns were undertaken on a steel railway bridge in North Bay, Canada, using data from sensors and an FEA to study longitudinal force transfer and the impact of rehabilitation with traction bracing. Data from both pre- and post-rehabilitation tests indicated that most axial force in the rail is transferred along its length to a reaction point off the bridge, rather than being transferred immediately into the superstructure. Furthermore, data from the post-rehabilitation tests suggested that the added traction bracing did not significantly affect bridge behavior. Overall, the results demonstrate how field monitoring using conventional and fiber optic strain sensors can be used to assess force transfer between the rail and a superstructure, which could be used as a first step in assessing whether a bridge requires longitudinal strengthening prior to a more comprehensive assessment.
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    Field Test of a Shear Force Measurement Technique Using Fibre Optic Sensing Under Variable Speed Truck Loading
    (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2022-10-22) Gillham, Jack; Hoult, Neil A.; Bentz, Evan C.
    The measurement of reaction forces at bridge bearings would enable engineers tasked with maintaining bridges to detect potential damage to the bearing and bridge by detecting changes in the load distribution at the supports with time. Currently, measuring the load in the bearing requires sensors built into the bearing, which means that they are hard to repair when damaged and cannot be installed after the bridge is built (unless the bearings are replaced). A potential alternative is the use of distributed fiber optic sensors (DFOS) that could be used to measure curvature in the beams of a bridge, which can then be used to calculate the moment, shear, and ultimately reaction force due to live loading. To investigate this, a DFOS system was installed on a newly built steel girder bridge on a single beam near one of the piers. A series of load tests were undertaken using a truck with a known load and driving along the bridge directly over the instrumented beam at speeds ranging from pseudo-static up to 30 km/h. The maximum measured strain in the bridge beam was 15 microstrain, which was lower than can be measured with certain DFOS systems, and highlighted the need to select a system with appropriate accuracy and precision. The measured strains were used to calculate the beam shear at the pier as the truck moved across the bridge. These results were compared with a continuous beam and two grillage analyses, and it was found that, based on the continuous beam model, about 25% of the total truck load was being carried by the beam, which was lower than the code live load distribution factor suggested. The grillage models provided better estimates of load spreading but were still conservative and dependent on the choice of transverse stiffness.
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    Exploration of Reaction Pathways in Glycerol Electro-Oxidation on β-Nickel Oxyhydroxide Surface Using Computational Simulations
    (2024-06-21) Cicciarella, Rosa Danielle; Chemistry; Mosey, Nicholas
    Every year, billions of litres of glycerol are produced as a by-product during the manufacturing of biodiesel, raising environmental and economic concerns. The market demand for glycerol is low and there is a need for a safe, efficient, and highly customizable way to repurpose this waste product. This research uses computational simulations to investigate how the glycerol electro-oxidation reaction (GEOR) on a β-NiOOH surface can be used to transform glycerol into value-added products. Quantum chemical calculations were performed, utilizing density functional theory with Hubbard and dispersion corrections, and a planewave basis set to obtain the energies of each product relative to glycerol. The work was conducted with and without the presence of a bismuth adatom on the surface; findings suggest that bismuth lowers the relative energy of most reaction steps and highly favours the formation of pyruvaldehyde, lactate, and glycerate products. Charge density difference isosurface plots were also used to provide mechanistic insight into the reactions occurring and the stability of products.

Communities in QSpace

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  • Digital Collections
    This community includes digital collections produced by members of the Queen’s community, as well as digital special collections made available via W.D. Jordan Rare Books & Special Collections.
  • Exams & Syllabi
    This community provides access for staff and students at Queen’s University to degree examination papers and syllabi.
  • Graduate Theses, Dissertations and Projects
    This community includes graduate theses, dissertations and projects produced by students at Queen’s University.
  • Research Data
    This community includes research data produced by faculty and staff at Queen’s University.
  • Scholarly Contributions
    This community includes Queen’s peer-reviewed research publications, including journal articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, and more.