Queen's Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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This is a collection of the Queen's University Masters Degree and PhD Theses and Dissertations. Submissions are limited to officially registered Queen's University graduate students, only.

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    Were Perceptions of Physical Activity Impact on Mental Health Associated With Actual Mental Health During the Covid-19 Pandemic?
    (2024-07-12) Yousufi, Sameer; Public Health Sciences; Stuart, Heather; Janssen, Ian
    Background: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic announced in March 2020, many studies reported deteriorating changes in physical, social, and mental wellbeing. Physical activity an established determinant of social and mental health, changed during the pandemic. This thesis examined the role of positive and negative perceptions of physical activity’s impact on mental health on severe mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: The first objective was to determine if there was an association between the perceived impact of physical activity on mental health status and severe mental distress. The second objective was to determine whether this relationship varied over time as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed. Methods: Cross-sectional data from April 2021 to April 2022 collected by Mental Health Research Canada (MHRC) was used, involving 24,144 adult Canadian survey respondents across seven polls. The main exposure variable was the perception of physical activity impact on mental health (positive, negative, neutral), and the outcome variable of interest was mental health status corresponding to severe levels of mental distress. The exposure variable used an ordinal scale to assess perceptions. Severe levels of mental distress were measured using the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7, recoded to reflect severe symptoms of either. Logistic regression models were created to examine associations between the main study variables of interest while controlling for covariates. A stratified analysis of the final logistic regression model was conducted to examine findings by each survey poll. Results: Negative perceptions of physical activity impact on mental health were associated with higher odds of severe mental distress when compared to neutral perceptions, with effects modified by gender but not income (Men-high income: OR= 3.27, 95% CI = [2.25, 4.76], Men low income: OR= 3.10, 95% CI = [2.27, 4.22], Women-high income: OR= 1.87, 95% CI = [1.43, 2.45], Women-low income: OR= 1.88, 95% CI = [1.49, 2.38]). However, positive perceptions of physical activity impact on mental health were not associated with severe mental distress when compared to neutral perceptions for women.
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    Advancing Industrial Smokeless Flaring: Experimental and Computational Studies into Swirl Air-Assist Burners
    (2024-07-11) Hou, Jianfeng; Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Birk, A. Michael
    The flame thermal radiation characteristics of two prototype swirl air-assist burner designs, associated with industrial smokeless flaring, were experimentally and computationally studied. The work was driven by two main interests: first, to explore the potential of swirling air-assist flare tips in reducing thermal radiation levels, decreasing soot emission, and stabilizing flames in cross-wind; second, to develop an affordable Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology validated with these specific flames to facilitate further burner designs. The experimental investigation involved two burner configurations. The first burner, named the accelerating swirl burner, was evaluated using two-phase propane at rates of 3 kg/min and 6 kg/min. Compared to an open flare and the burner setting without assist air, the burner with a moderate active assist air supply effectively reduced the visible flame area and emissive power, while also enhanced flame stability in cross-wind. The second burner, called the diffusing swirl burner, equipped with two powerful centrifugal fans, was tested under assist-air to fuel ratio (AAFR) ranged from low, moderate, high to maximum. An increase in AAFR introduced recirculation regions near the burner outlet, led to reductions in visible flame area, emissive power, and radiative heat flux. CFD simulations of both swirl burners in ANSYS Fluent captured the general trends observed in experiments, such as decrease in flame size and emissive power. For the diffusing swirl burner, however, the flame shape responsiveness to AAFR changes in CFD lagged behind that in experimental observations, with flame area discrepancies ranging from 11%-42% compared to the flame contours observed at 800 K. Predictions of emissive power deviated from the experimental values by 3%-67%. Regarding soot production, the model predicted a maximum 84% reduction in soot volume fraction, closely aligning with the observed transition from slightly sooty to smokeless flames in experiments.
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    DISENTANGLING THE COMPLEXITIES OF TRUST: AN EMERGING LINE OF INQUIRY IN THE CONTEXT OF SPORT
    (2024-07-11) McGuire, Cailie; Kinesiology and Health Studies; Martin, Luc
    Consensus within the sport psychology literature is that the attainment of task-related objectives should never come at the expense of athlete welfare (Brown & Arnold, 2019). As such, researchers have begun to examine factors that best promote the achievement of high levels of performance and well-being simultaneously—an experience termed athlete thriving (Brown et al., 2021). One construct that has received minimal attention in sport but has been found to promote the aforementioned outcomes across team contexts is interpersonal trust (herein referred to as trust). Extensive research across the fields of organizational, developmental, and social psychology describes trust as a key ingredient for the achievement of performance (e.g., enhanced perceptions of cohesion; de Jong et al., 2016) and well-being outcomes (e.g., engagement in help-seeking behaviours; Rickwood et al., 2005). When considering these implications alongside thriving, trust appears to be a relevant yet overlooked construct within sport. This dissertation includes three studies that aim to address this gap by advancing a targeted line of inquiry on trust generally, and in sport specifically. Study 1 involved the consolidation and evaluation of existing trust research across performance-oriented team contexts. Using a two-phase citation network analysis (CNA) and critical review process, a strong understanding of the conceptual underpinnings of trust was achieved. Benefiting from Study 1 findings, Study 2 involved the direct exploration of Canadian interuniversity athletes’ (n = 13) experiences with trust in interdependent sport teams. As a result, a key feature as well as precursors, facilitators, and outcomes of trust were identified. Additionally, athletes emphasized the important role that coaches played in supporting trust development. Thus, Study 3 sought to broaden our understanding of trust through the inclusion of Canadian interuniversity coach perspectives (n = 18). Using a narrative inquiry approach, the analysis process identified three narratives that coaches drew from when sharing their stories about building trust. Altogether, by enhancing our understanding of what trust is and how it is developed in sport teams, athletes and coaches alike could be better equipped to foster sport environments most conducive to developing trusting relationships—thereby enabling athletes to thrive.
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    “God loves you but not enough to save you”: Patriarchal Authority and Feminine Punishment in Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar and Ethel Cain’s Preacher’s Daughter
    (2024-07-09) Fattor, Sacha; English Language and Literature; Chatterjee, Ronjaunee
    This thesis draws upon critical feminist theory, autobiographical genres, and contemporary comparative analysis to examine gendered discourse and corporeal feminine punishment in The Bell Jar (1963) by Sylvia Plath and Preacher’s Daughter (2022) by Ethel Cain. My research links confessional women’s writing and patriarchal authority to examine the oppressive nature exerted by patriarchal institutions over feminine subjects. I observe the characterization of feminine heroine within patriarchal landscapes in which Biblical ideas of damnation, punishment, and salvation serve as a trajectory that both maps patriarchal violence and, at times, offers a window through and out of it. My thesis aims to highlight the evolving female literary landscape of the mid-20th century, establish the patriarchal conventions that exist in women’s writing, and denote patriarchal subjects’ consistent allusion to Biblical functions as reasoning for their systematic torment.
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    The Ballad of Benson: Creating Queer Young Adult Literature set in Eighteenth-Century London
    (2024-07-09) Galbraith, Isabella; English Language and Literature; Ritchie, Leslie; Humphreys, Helen
    This thesis aims to explore queer normalization in the context of the eighteenth century and young adult novels. Specifically, I suggest that in both academic and creative spheres, there is a lack of queer normalization in young adult literature from or set in this period. I explore what value is added to academic and creative disciplines with the addition of these queer normative worlds. I also contend with the benefits and drawbacks of creating worlds wherein queerness is normalized, despite this not being historically accurate to the work’s temporal setting. In pursuit of exploring these questions, I employ a two-pronged approach. The first prong is a research essay in Chapter 1. In this first chapter, I conduct a temporal analysis of the genre of young adult fiction, considering eighteenth-century dynamics and modern dynamics. I then consider the topics of gender and sexuality as they relate to queerness in the eighteenth century. Throughout this essay, I refer to my own creative work, which makes up the second prong of this thesis. The second prong consists of the opening chapters from an original creative young adult work, The Ballad of Benson, that explores such a world wherein queerness is normalized.

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