Institute of Intergovernmental Relations (IIGR) Faculty Publications

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    Tracking Transnational Terrorist Resourcing Nodes and Networks
    (Florida State University College of Law, 2019) Leuprecht, Christian; Cockfield, Arthur J; Simpson, Pamela; Haseeb, Maseeh
    In light of persistent terrorist attacks in Europe and elsewhere, the study of terrorist resourcing and financing has attracted renewed attention. How are terrorists’ networks financed? Who raises the financial “resources,” and how do they transfer them across borders? How does the global financial industry facilitate or impede these transfers? Answers to these and other questions can help law enforcement investigate, disrupt, and neutralize cross-border terrorist resourcing. Evidence and data on this phenomenon is scarce, of questionable quality, irreplicable, and can be difficult to come by. This study is the first comprehensive effort to collect, code, analyze, and compare available open-source case law data on transnational terrorist resourcing networks. Under the study’s methodology, the conventional yet strict focus on financing is broadened to resources, which includes forms other than cash, including trade-based fraud and online social networks. The analysis reveals common cross-border resourcing patterns and usage of financial intermediaries such as banks. It thus contributes to the ongoing optimization of anti-terrorist resourcing laws, policies, and risk-management practices.
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    Political Demography as an Indicator of the Future of Security
    (Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, 2020) Leuprecht, Christian
    Throughout history, the ebb and flow of populations—through natural growth, epidemics, and migration—has been linked to the rise and fall of empires, to conquests and revolutions, rebellion, civil war, and the rise and collapse of entire societies and civilizations. Demographic trends allow us to anticipate future developments in size and distribution of population groups. As such, demography is a harbinger of challenge and opportunity, a multiplier of conflict and rogress, and a resource for power and prosperity.
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    New Opportunities in Common Security and Defence Policy: Joining PESCO
    (European Studies Association Australia and New Zealand, 2019) Leuprecht, Christian; Hamilton, Rhianna
    Responding to concerns about burden-sharing and aiming to improve internal defence cooperation, act more quickly and harness resource synergies, the European Union (EU) initiated the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in 2017. PESCO, however, is controversial. On the one hand, the United States (US) wants greater burden-sharing by European allies whilst concerned about greater European military autarky that would undermine US influence over NATO, Europe/EU and EU member states. On the other hand, at least one European NATO ally wants to leverage PESCO precisely as an instrument to shore up European “strategic autonomy”. This tension over competing European defence futures leaves participation by third countries in limbo. Arguably, third-country participation would hinder greater European defence autarky. The article makes the case for the mutual benefits of third-country participation, focusing on Canada. Canada has a major stake in the outcome. NATO is Canada’s most important multilateral institution and Europe is Canada’s second-most important strategic partner, after the US. Canada’s unequivocal strategic interests in Europe have long informed its expeditionary priorities -- from the two world wars, when Canada coming to Europe’s defence long before the US proved existential for both parties, to nowadays. Since the 1970s, Canada and Europe have worked consistently together bilaterally beyond NATO to advance regional stability and mutual security interests. Canada’s and Europe’s defence futures are thus interdependent. Excluding third countries from participating in PESCO would have detrimental consequences for Canadian, European and transatlantic defence interests. In contrast, with third country participation, PESCO will be instrumental to effective transatlantic and transeuropean defence integration.
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    The enhanced Forward Presence: innovating NATO's deployment model for collective defence
    (NATO Defense College, 2019-10) Leuprecht, Christian
    The enhanced Forward Presence (eFP) is not merely a deterrence mechanism that relies on NA TO’s reputation to guard the northeastern flank, but an innovative deployment model in response to the spectrum of emerging threats that confront the Alliance and its members.
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    The Social Union Framework Agreement : Lost Opportunity or New Beginning? (Working Paper 3)
    (2000-08) Lazar, Harvey
    The Social Union Framework Agreement of 1999 has the potential to be the most far-reaching reform in the workings of the federation since the changes associated with the Constitution Act, 1982. Whether it will in practice have the effect is still un known. Successful implementation will require a sustained and intensive effort on the part of signatory governments to learn new behaviours. They will have to learn to work with additional constraints on their room for maneuver.1 And while it might be presumed that governments had made that decision when they signed the Social Union Framework Agreement (SUFA), it is not yet clear that they are in fact conducting them selves in ways that reflect those commitments