A Quantitative Investigation of Selected Reactions in the Fibrinolytic Cascade
Cook, P. Michael
Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor , Procarboxypeptidase U , Fibrinolysis , Plasminogen , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 , Plasmin , Antiplasmin , Enzyme Kinetics , Fibrin
Previous work has shown that thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) was unable to prolong lysis of purified clots in the presence of Lys-plasminogen (Lys-Pg), indicating a possible mechanism for fibrinolysis to circumvent prolongation mediated by activated TAFI (TAFIa). Therefore, the effects of TAFIa on Lys-Pg activation and Lys-plasmin (Lys-Pn) inhibition by antiplasmin (AP) were quantitatively investigated using a fluorescently labeled recombinant Pg mutant which does not produce active Pn. High molecular weight fibrin degradation products (HMW-FDPs), a soluble fibrin surrogate that models Pn modified fibrin, treated with TAFIa decreased the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 5IAF-Glu-Pg cleavage by 417-fold and of 5IAF-Lys-Pg cleavage by 55-fold. A previously devised intact clot system was used to measure the apparent second order rate constant (k2) for Pn inhibition by AP over time. While TAFIa was able to abolish the protection associated with Pn modified fibrin in clots formed with Glu-Pg, it was not able to abolish the protection in clots formed with Lys-Pg. However, TAFIa was still able to prolong the lysis of clots formed with Lys-Pg. TAFIa prolongs clot lysis by removing the positive feedback loop for Pn generation. The effect of TAFIa modification of the HMW-FDPs on the rate of tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) inhibition by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) was investigated using a previously devised end point assay. HMW-FDPs decreased the k2 for tPA inhibition rate by 3-fold. Thus, HMW-FDPs protect tPA from PAI-1. TAFIa treatment of the HMW-FDPs resulted in no change in protection. Vitronectin also did not appreciably affect tPA inhibition by PAI-1. Pg, in conjunction with HMW-FDPs, decreased the k2 for tPA inhibition by 30-fold. Hence, Pg, when bound to HMW-FDPs, protects tPA by an additional 10-fold. TAFIa treatment of the HMW-FDPs completely removed this additional protection provided by Pg. In conclusion, an additional mechanism was identified whereby TAFIa can prolong clot lysis by increasing the rate of tPA inhibition by PAI-1 by eliminating the protective effects of Pn-modified fibrin and Pg. Because TAFIa can suppress Lys-Pg activation but cannot attenuate Lys-Pn inhibition by AP, the Glu- to Lys-Pg/Pn conversion is able to act as a fibrinolytic switch to ultimately lyse the clot.