Low Carbon Fuels in the Cement Industry: Biogenic Carbon Determination Methods and Quantification of Dioxins and Furans
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This thesis examined the introduction and potential issues associated with the introduction of low carbon fuel (LCF) within the context of a project currently in progress at the Lafarge Bath plant. An analysis considering the stack sampling methods for acquiring polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)(dioxin)/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF)(furan) samples was conducted. The variance of dioxin/furan data obtained from single train and simultaneous multiple train stack sampling methods was compared. Standard deviation as a function of concentration, and confidence intervals at the 95th percentile were determined. The relationships were plotted and superimposed upon one another to determine if one of the two methods was beneficial. Results indicated that there was a benefit from the use of simultaneous multiple train sampling for sample concentrations above 129 pg toxic equivalency (TEQ)/m3. To comply with regulations, facilities in Ontario, California and the European Union (EU) that emit above the reporting threshold must quantify and report their emissions. Biogenic-based carbon can be quantified and deducted from the reported greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for facilities in Ontario, the EU, and under the California Article 5 policy. Biogenic-based carbon is reported separately under the California MRR. The standard ASTM D6866, BS EN 15440, or ISO 13833 can be used to determine the ratio of biogenic-based, to fossil-based carbon. The three standards incorporate a carbon-14 radioisotope analysis. ASTM D6866 and ISO 13833 analyze the flue gas emitted into the atmosphere and BS EN 15440 analyzes a solid fuel. Carbon emissions deductions as determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) are not permitted by these regulations.