Associations of Modifiable Risk Factors with Insulin Resistance Among Inactive, Abdominally Obese Adults
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Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, both of which are leading causes of mortality worldwide. Three modifiable risk factors that are associated with IR include physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SED), and diet. Consensus guidelines state that to obtain health benefit, PA should be performed at a moderate-to-vigorous intensity in bouts of at least 10 consecutive minutes for a minimum of 150 minutes per week. Whether PA that is accumulated below guideline recommendations- such as light PA or sporadic PA (bouts < 10 minutes) - is associated with improvements in IR is uncertain. Irrespective of PA, a growing body of literature suggests that SED may elicit health consequences independent of PA. Furthermore, a dietary pattern in accordance with guidelines may attenuate IR, although the optimal dietary pattern for the prevention of IR remains unclear. Although the separate associations between IR and objectively measured PA and SED as well as self-reported diet quantity and quality have been reported in the literature, few studies have considered the interaction between these modifiable risk factors and IR. We sought to assess the associations of PA, SED, diet quantity, and diet quality with IR in a sample of inactive, abdominally obese men (n=33) and women (n=69). SED and light PA displayed a strong inverse relationship with each other. SED was positively associated with IR, whereas light PA was negatively associated with IR. Sporadic, moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was not associated with IR. Neither diet quantity nor diet quality were directly associated with IR. Together, these findings suggest that the substitution of SED for modest amounts of PA accumulated below guideline recommendations may attenuate IR among inactive, abdominally obese adults.