SCAPHOID AND LUNATE CARPAL MECHANICS OVER THE SPECTRUM OF HEALTHY FUNCTION
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When ligaments within the wrist are damaged, the resulting loss in range of motion and grip strength can lead to reduced earning potential and restricted ability to perform important activities of daily living. Left untreated, ligament injuries ultimately lead to arthritis and chronic pain. Surgical repair can mitigate these issues but current procedures are often non-anatomic and unable to completely restore the wrist’s complex network of ligaments. An inability to quantitatively assess wrist function clinically, both before and after surgery, limits the ability to assess the response to clinical intervention. Previous work has shown that bones within the wrist move in a similar pattern across people, but these patterns remain challenging to predict and model. In an effort to quantify and further develop the understanding of normal carpal mechanics, we performed two studies using 3D in vivo carpal bone motion analysis techniques. For the first study, we measured wrist laxity and performed CT scans of the wrist to evaluate 3D carpal bone positions. We found that through mid-range radial-ulnar deviation range of motion the scaphoid and lunate primarily flexed and extended; however, there was a significant relationship between wrist laxity and row-column behaviour. We also found that there was a significant relationship between scaphoid flexion and active radial deviation range of motion. For the second study, an analysis was performed on a publicly available database. We evaluated scapholunate relative motion over a full range of wrist positions, and found that there was a significant amount of variation in the location and orientation of the rotation axis between the two bones. Together the findings from the two studies illustrate the complexity and subject specificity of normal carpal mechanics, and should provide insights that can guide the development of anatomical wrist ligament repair surgeries that restore normal function.