A Recursive Income Model for Canadians : The Direct and Indirect Effects of Family Background (Working Paper 28)
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This paper presents the results of a multi-equation income model which has been estimated for Canadian men and women which incorporates the effects of a number of important family background variables, including mother’s and father’s education, parents’ immigration status, their age at immigration, place of birth, language development, and learning background. Not only education, but also the individual’s tested literacy and numeracy levels are treated as intermediate outcomes which are affected by background and which, in turn, affect income. Many of the background variables are found to have important indirect effects on income which would be missed by more conventional approaches. We also find some interesting gender aspects with respect to the influences of parents’ educations on their children’s outcomes. Various policy implications of the findings are discussed.