Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells with Embedded Bipolar Electrodes: Visualizing Bipolar Electrochemistry in Solid State
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The work presented in this thesis examines the properties of BPEs of various configurations and under different operating conditions in a large planar LEC system. Detailed analysis of time-lapsed fluorescence images allows us to calculate the doping propagation speed from the BPEs. By introducing a linear array of BPEs or dispersed ITO particles, multiple light-emitting junctions or a bulk homojunction have been demonstrated. In conclusion, it has been observed that both applied bias voltages and sizes of BPEs affected the electrochemical doping from the BPE. If the applied bias voltage was initially not sufficiently high enough, a delay in appearance of doping from the BPE would take place. Experiments of parallel BPEs with different sizes (large, medium, small) demonstrate that the potential difference across the BPEs has played a vital role in doping initiation. Also, the p-doping propagation distance from medium-sized BPE has displayed an exponential growth over the time-span of 70 seconds. Experiments with a linear array of BPEs with the same size demonstrate that the doping propagation speed of each floating BPE was the same regardless of its position between the driving electrodes. Probing experiments under high driving voltages further demonstrated the potential of having a much more efficient light emission from an LEC with multiple BPEs.