An Islanding Detection Method based on Impedance Estimation and Grid Identification for Grid-Tie Distributed Power Generation Systems
Power system policies are broadly on track to escalate the use of renewable energy resources in electric power generation. Integration of dispersed generation to the utility network not only intensifies the benefits of renewable generation but also introduces further advantages such as power quality enhancement and freedom of power generation for the consumers. However, issues arise from the integration of distributed generators to the existing utility grid are as significant as its benefits. The issues are aggravated as the number of grid-connected distributed generators increases. Therefore, power quality demands become stricter to ensure a safe and proper advancement towards the emerging smart grid. In this regard, system protection is the area that is highly affected as the grid-connected distributed generation share in electricity generation increases. Islanding detection, amongst all protection issues, is the most important concern for a power system with high penetration of distributed sources. Islanding occurs when a portion of the distribution network which includes one or more distributed generation units and local loads is disconnected from the remaining portion of the grid. Upon formation of a power island, it remains energized due to the presence of one or more distributed sources. This thesis introduces a new islanding detection technique based on an enhanced multi-layer scheme that shows superior performance over the existing techniques. It provides improved solutions for safety and protection of power systems and distributed sources that are capable of operating in grid-connected mode. The proposed active method offers negligible non-detection zone. It is applicable to micro-grids with a number of distributed generation sources without sacrificing the dynamic response of the system. In addition, the information obtained from the proposed scheme allows for smooth transition to stand-alone operation if required. The proposed technique paves the path towards a comprehensive protection solution for future power networks. The proposed method is converter-resident and all power conversion systems that are operating based on power electronics converters can benefit from this method. The theoretical analysis is presented, and extensive simulation results confirm the validity of the analytical work.