Effect of Geometric Imperfections (Wrinkles) on the Circumferential Strength of a Composite Polymer Liner for Pressure Pipes
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The relining of deteriorated gravity flow and pressure pipes with polymeric liners is now popular practice. In the water industry, health concerns and challenges associated with re-opening water services in a lined small diameter pipe have limited the use of liners. Sanexen Environmental Services Inc. in Montreal, Canada, manufactures a cured-in-place liner system which can restore water service connections after lining from within the pipe, using a remote controlled robot. The installation of the liner within cast iron water pipes can result in the formation of geometric imperfections (wrinkles) as the external diameter of the liner often exceeds the internal diameter of the host pipe. Previous studies have suggested that the wrinkles have a detrimental effect on the structural performance of the liner. In this study, experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to evaluate further the effect of the wrinkles on the circumferential (hoop) strength of the liner. The experimental investigation involved testing 33-25 mm wide ring samples of the liner with and without wrinkles, using the split-disk test method which is defined by ASTM Standard D2290. The laboratory tests were conducted to examine the effects on the response of the liner of loading rate, cyclic loading, and presence of different wrinkle configurations. A series of two-tailed Mann-Whitney statistical tests were conducted on the obtained test data. The analytical investigation examined the behavior of two of the three types of wrinkles observed in the liner using finite element models. The results from the models were evaluated using the experimental results. This study confirmed that the wrinkles were a source of weakness in the liner as failure was initiated at the wrinkle in all the test samples. It also showed that their presence may or may not result in a reduction in the ultimate hoop tensile capacity of the liner depending on wrinkle pattern. The loading rate had no significant effect on the first cracking load of the resin within the wrinkle. However, lower ultimate hoop tensile capacities were observed at very slow loading rates. Under the 50-year cyclic loading, the resin within the wrinkle was susceptible to cracking while the jackets of the wrinkle remained intact.