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dc.contributor.authorZaslawski, Zinaen
dc.description.abstractThis study examines online identity theft, consumer fraud and phishing victimization using data from a national survey of Canadians. The goal is to answer the following questions: (1) Is everyone equally likely to be a target of online crime? and (2) What factors might lead to online victimization? This research utilizes Routine Activity Theory (Cohen and Felson 1979) and an extension proposed by Eck and Clarke (2003). This approach specifies that crime is facilitated by an offender’s motivation, the absence of effective guardians, and the availability of suitable targets online. This research draws on the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS). Logistic regression is used to analyze the relationships between demographic variables, perceptions of risk and online routine activities on identity theft, consumer fraud, and phishing victimization. Findings reveal that education has a consistent effect on all three types of victimization when taking into account routine activities. Men are less likely to change passwords regularly and to delete emails on a regular basis compared with women. Men, compared with women, are also more likely to be victims of consumer fraud and phishing. Results show that perceptions of risk are correlated with victimization. Several forms of routine activities (using the internet for banking, making reservations or bookings, and belonging to online social network websites) increase all three types of victimization. In addition, using the internet for purchasing goods or services or using online chat services increases victimization for consumer fraud and phishing. The results also reveal that those who deal with known websites, enter misleading information online, regularly change their passwords and delete emails are more likely to be victims of online consumer fraud and phishing. This could be explained by other ‘risky’ online activities that moderate relationships. Findings provide support for Routine Activities Theory as an explanation for online identity theft, consumer fraud, and phishing victimization. Further research should explore additional causes, such as ‘risky’ online activities that lead to online victimization. Research should also focus on prevention measures aimed at those most at risk of victimization.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesCanadian thesesen
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United Statesen
dc.rightsQueen's University's Thesis/Dissertation Non-Exclusive License for Deposit to QSpace and Library and Archives Canadaen
dc.rightsProQuest PhD and Master's Theses International Dissemination Agreementen
dc.rightsIntellectual Property Guidelines at Queen's Universityen
dc.rightsCopying and Preserving Your Thesisen
dc.rightsThis publication is made available by the authority of the copyright owner solely for the purpose of private study and research and may not be copied or reproduced except as permitted by the copyright laws without written authority from the copyright owner.en
dc.subjectRoutine Activity Theoryen
dc.subjectOnline Identity Crimeen
dc.titleNot Everyone Is a Target: An Analysis of Online Identity Crime Victimization Using Routine Activities Theoryen
dc.contributor.supervisorKay, Fionaen
dc.contributor.departmentSociologyen's University at Kingstonen

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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States