Giuding in Language Assessment: a Literature Review
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This paper reviews empirical studies in the field of language assessment on grading or scoring. Most of the reviewed studies have attempted to examine systematic effects on scoring of variables associated with teachers/raters for the purpose of score consistency and reliability. Following the measurement paradigm, these studies have generally taken a positivist approach and used primarily quantitative methodology. More recently, researchers have begun to pay increasing attention to teachers' grading practices in different contexts to explore the validity of classroombased assessment. This line of research interprets grading or scoring as a professional decision-making process, focusing on understanding teacher-raters ' grading or scoring practices in relation to broader educational, social and cultural contexts. Studies in this line of research have followed an interpretivism paradigm and employed primarily qualitative research methodology. This paper analyzes these two themes of research on grading/scoring in relation to two trends in language assessment: language performance assessment and assessment for learning, and discusses their significant implications for future research.