Exact-solution for Cone-plate Viscometry
Giacomin, A. Jeffrey
Gilbert, Peter H.
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The viscosity of a Newtonian fluid is often measured by confining the fluid to the gap between a rotating cone that is perpendicular to a fixed disk. We call this experiment cone-plate viscometry. When the cone angle approaches π /2 , the viscometer gap is called narrow. The shear stress in the fluid, throughout a narrow gap, hardly departs from the shear stress exerted on the plate, and we thus call cone-plate flow nearly homogeneous. In this paper, we derive an exact solution for this slight heterogeneity, and from this we derive the correction factors for the shear rate on the cone and plate, for the torque, and thus, for the measured Newtonian viscosity. These factors thus allow the cone-plate viscometer to be used more accurately, and with cone-angles well below π /2 . We find cone-plate flow field heterogeneity to be far slighter than previously thought. We next use our exact solution for the velocity to arrive at the exact solution for the temperature rise, due to viscous dissipation, in cone-plate flow subject to isothermal boundaries. Since Newtonian viscosity is a strong function of temperature, we expect our new exact solution for the temperature rise be useful to those measuring Newtonian viscosity, and especially so, to those using wide gaps. We include two worked examples to teach practitioners how to use our main results.