17O NMR studies of organic and biological molecules in aqueous solution and in the solid state
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This review describes the latest developments in the field of 17O NMR spectroscopy of organic and biological molecules both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. In the first part of the review, a general theoretical description of the nuclear quadrupole relaxation process in isotropic liquids is presented at a mathematical level suitable for non-specialists. In addition to the first-order quadrupole interaction, the theory also includes additional relaxation mechanisms such as the second-order quadrupole interaction and its cross correlation with shielding anisotropy. This complete theoretical treatment allows one to assess the transverse relaxation rate (thus the line width) of NMR signals from half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in solution over the entire range of motion. On the basis of this theoretical framework, we discuss general features of quadrupole-central-transition (QCT) NMR, which is a particularly powerful method of studying biomolecules in the slow motion regime. Then we review recent advances in 17O QCT NMR studies of biological macromolecules in aqueous solution. The second part of the review is concerned with solid-state 17O NMR studies of organic and biological molecules. As a sequel to the previous review on the same subject [G. Wu, Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 52 (2008) 118–169], the current review provides a complete coverage of the literature published since 2008 in this area.