Mechanical, Elution, and Antibacterial Properties of Simplex Bone Cement Loaded with Vancomycin
Bishop, Aaron R.
Squire, Matthew W.
Rose, Warren E.
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Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most devastating failures in total joint replacement (TJR). Infections are becoming difficult to treat due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria. These bacteria produce biofilm on the implant surface, rendering many antibiotics ineffective by compromising drug diffusion and penetration into the infected area. With the introduction of new antibiotics there is a need to create benchmark data from the traditional antibiotic loaded bone cements. Vancomycin, one of the commonly used antibiotics, shows activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S.epidermidis. In our study, vancomycin added to bone cement was evaluated for elution properties, antimicrobial properties, and mechanical properties of the bone cement. Vancomycin at five different loading masses (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g) was added to 40 grams of Simplex™ P cement. Addition of vancomycin affected the mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity with significant differences from controls. Flexural and compression mechanical properties were compromised with added vancomycin. The flexural strength of samples with added vancomycin of 0.5 g and greater were not greater than ISO 5833 minimum requirements. 2.0 g of vancomycin added to bone cement was able to eliminate completely the four bacterial strains tested. 2.0 g of vancomycin also showed the highest mass elution from the cement over a 60-day period. Given the reduced flexural strength in samples with 0.5 g and greater of added vancomycin and the inability of vancomycin in amounts less than 2.0 g to eliminate bacteria, this study did not find an ideal amount of vancomycin added to SimplexTM P that meets both strength and antibacterial requirements.