Challenges of Black and Other Minority Students Around Equity and Inclusion in a Postsecondary Institution in Ontario, Canada
In Canada statistics show that visible minorities represent 23.3% of the total Canadian population. The vast majority (94.8%) of the foreign-born population lives in Ontario (53.3%), British Columbia, Quebec, and Alberta. Also, in 2016 Africa ranks second as a source of newcomers in Canada representing 13.4% of the share between 2011 and 2016. This study investigates the challenges of this minority population around equity and inclusion at a post secondary institution in Ontario, Canada. Minority students are constituted of Black (African and Caribbean), Middle Eastern, Mixed, Latin, South Asian, Chinese, and Indigenous communities. Stratified sampling was used to distinguish Black students from other minority students. Black students were further stratified into Caribbean and African with the final level of stratification being the ancestral country of origin. This research used a mix method to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The survey was conducted on 132 participants coming from a post secondary institution in Ontario. Among these students, 7 accepted to take part in the interview for this study and referred 3 other minority students. In total 10 minority students (7 undergraduate and 3 graduates; 5 domestic and 5 international) participated to the interview of this study. Black students faced more challenges than other minority students around equity and inclusion. Minority students faced socio-economic challenges due to high tuition fees (international students), racial discrimination, and racial micro-aggressions. Homophily with subtle segregation was the type of relationships prevalent between Black, non-White, and White students. Systemic racism prevailed characterised by a macroaggression policy that took 100 years to grant an apology to afflicted Black students without accompanying measures. This study recommends for better inclusion of minority students developing a culture of integration (both homophily and propinquity relationships), supporting apology for macroaggression policy with a special scholarship for Black students. This study also recommends the enhancement of equity by providing more opportunity to the White population to learn about multiculturalism, the increase in number of Black students, teachers and staff who are far less represented within the minority population and the introduction and promotion of more extracurricular opportunities that facilitate integration of minority students.