Exploring First-Year University Students’ Barriers and Facilitators to Meeting the Recommendations of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adult
The majority of university students do not meet the recommended amounts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep, which can impact academic success. The forthcoming Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults (24HMG) are a tool created using a Knowledge Translation (KT) approach, which will provide recommendations for optimal levels of PA, SB, and sleep. In order to address the gap of university students falling short of meeting 24HMG recommendations, the development of an implementation intervention is needed. To inform intervention development, understanding the barriers and facilitators university students face to meeting the recommendations of the 24HMG are necessary. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) can be used to assess barriers and facilitators to intervention implementation across five different levels. The purpose of this study is to examine the multilevel factors that allow and/or restrict first-year university students to meet the PA, SB, and sleep recommendations featured in the 24HMG. This study took place at Queen’s University (QU) and the University of British Columbia (UBC). Focus groups consisting of first-year students were conducted at QU and UBC. Inductive thematic analysis identified three themes and 13 subthemes, which were then deductively mapped onto the CFIR domains. The challenges faced by students directly relate to the individual and the value placed on meeting 24HMG recommendations (i.e., characteristics of individuals involved), as well as indirectly through the social and physical environments (i.e., both at the inner setting and outer setting). When developing an intervention to improve students’ movement behaviours on university campuses, the majority of components should remain consistent across campuses, and some components should be tailored specific to the institution. Findings provide a foundation that will contribute to the development of an optimal and evidence-based implementation intervention aimed to optimize movement behaviours among first- year university students.