Examining the Interactions among Second Language Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Knowledge of Metacognition, and Their Influence on Teaching Metacognition
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Three critical constructs in relation to teachers’ instruction were examined in this study. They are pedagogical content knowledge, knowledge of metacognition, and the teaching of metacognition. Pedagogical content knowledge is domain specific, which includes teachers’ knowledge about the subject and the translation of this knowledge into classroom activities. Knowledge of metacognition, on the other hand, is domain general, refers to the knowledge of identifying and delineating effective usages of general strategies in learning and self-knowledge. The teaching of metacognition refers to creating conditions where learning and fostering of metacognitive skills becomes plausible. This study examined the interactions between these two knowledge domains and their influence on teaching metacognition to second language adult learners in Language Instruction for Newcomers in Canada (LINC) classrooms. Based on Shulman’s (1987) teachers’ knowledge base categories, studies by Gatbonton (2008), Tarnanen (2015), Edwards (2014) explored teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge domain. Following Paris et al.’s (1983) framework, the metacognitive knowledge of teachers was examined in Wilson and Bai’s (2010) study that showed pre-service teachers lack of instructional knowledge in this domain. However, the interaction between these two domains and whether the interaction influence teaching metacognition to adult learners has not been discovered in second language context (i.e., LINC classrooms). To address this research gap, this study examined the three constructs using a qualitative approach. Eight LINC teacher participants answered 15 open-ended questions in 60-minute interviews. The questions were based on deductive categories related to the constructs. The inductive analysis of the data resulted in themes in all three constructs. The results suggest that the distinct knowledge areas (pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, knowledge of curriculum and knowledge of learners) within LINC teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge are interconnected. The findings also suggest that teachers have better understanding in the declarative knowledge category of metacognition rather than in procedural and conditional categories. This understanding of metacognition is rooted more in practice rather than theory, which amalgamates with pedagogical content knowledge and influences their teaching of metacognition. The conclusion suggests future research in constructing LINC teachers’ explicit knowledge of metacognition (in all knowledge categories) through preservice and in-service teacher education programs.
URI for this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/1974/28183
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