A collocation-based multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method using mode combination and improved relaxation
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Although very useful, the original multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method has two weaknesses: (1) its cost scales exponentially with the number of atoms in the system; (2) the standard MCTDH implementation requires that the potential energy surface (PES) be in the sum-of-product (SOP) form in order to reduce the cost of computing integrals in the MCTDH basis. One way to deal with (1) is to lump coordinates into groups. This is mode combination (MC). One way to deal with (2) is to reformulate MCTDH using collocation so that there are no integrals. In this paper, we combine MC and collocation to formulate a MC collocation multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MC-C-MCTDH) method. In practice, its cost does not scale exponentially with the number of atoms, and it can be used with any general PES; the PES need not be an SOP and need not have a special form. No integrals and, hence, no quadratures are necessary. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the new method by computing vibrational energy eigenstates of methyl radical, methane, and acetonitrile. To do this, we use MC-C-MCTDH with a variant of improved relaxation, derived by evaluating a residual at points. Because the MC basis functions are multivariate, collocation points in multi-dimensional spaces are required. We use two types of collocation points: (1) discrete variable representation-like points obtained from (approximate) simultaneous diagonalization of matrices and (2) Leja points, which are known to be good interpolation points, determined from a generalized recipe suitable for any basis.