Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Prevalent in Septic Tanks and Groundwater Resources
Groundwater , Borehole , Wells , Wastewater , Antibiotic , Resistance , Susceptible , Sensitive Bacteria , Resistant bacteria , Resistant Genes , Pathogens , Horizontal Gene Transfer , E.coli , Enrofloxacin , ermF , Erythromycin , Salmonella spp , Septic System , Septic Tanks , Vibrio Cholerae , Shigella , Staphylococcus , intl1 , Minimum Inhibitory Concentration , Minimum Selective Concentration , mph , gyrA , rpsL , qnrD , Personal Care Products , Pharmaceutical , Ampicillin , tetA , tetG , Tetracycline , Trimethroprim , Ciprofloxacin , Norfloxacin , Nalidixic Acid , Ofloxacin , Wastewater Treatment System
The persistence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria have increased in various water environments, including groundwater. Hospital settings, agriculture, and anthropogenic activities are very relevant as their contribution of antibiotic secretion from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environment has been concerning. Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) have the ability to spread their resistance genes and duplicate in aquatic environments, possibly altering bacterial communities already present in those environments. As the UN and WHO have stated, the presence of resistant bacteria in aquatic settings can be labelled as a concern that could lead to major global health issues. This review focused on the prevalence of antibiotics, bacteria, and ARB in septic tanks and groundwater. The objective was to analyze whether concentrations of antibiotics secreted into groundwater from septic tanks, had the ability to turn bacteria in groundwater resistant. The method used looked at published antibiotic concentrations in groundwater, compared against experimental and estimated MSC values (MSC & MSCe) gathered from published literature to create risk factor profiles. The risk factor profiles determined the risk of resistance genes being activated at given concentrations, indicating that presented bacteria were at high probabilities of developing resistance. When using the experimental MSC values, results showed that amongst the 17 resistance genes, both the gyrA (S83L) and dhfr gene were observed to be above risk factors of 1 when exposed to ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim, respectively. After creating a risk factor profile using estimated MSCs (MSCe), antibiotics with risk factors nearing 1 were ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim, with risk factors reaching 0.984, 0.864 and 0.592 respectively.