The Future of Trade is Inclusive: Canada’s Approach to Globalised Free Trade

No Thumbnail Available
Frisch, Emma
Free Trade , International Trade Law , International Investment Law , Inclusive Trade , International Economic Law
In response to people feeling left behind from experiencing trade-related gains, Canada has developed “inclusive” trade policies that attempt to redistribute trade- related opportunities to traditionally underrepresented groups like women, indigenous peoples, and small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs). While Canada has framed “inclusive” policies as being both socially and economically beneficial, the policies have been met with apprehension due to the impression that “inclusive” policies promote non-trade values. Despite the schism of “trade values” and “non-trade values”, the types of measures included in free trade agreements have expanded and adapted to societal and economic needs over time. Given the discontent surrounding globalized free trade, “inclusive” policies offer a path forward that could be both socially and economically more sustainable. This thesis endeavours to investigate if and how Canada’s inclusive trade policies have been adopted in the text of agreements, what impact the measures might have for expanding the categories of persons who benefit from globalized free trade, and whether inclusive policies create a tangible impact for the three target categories analysed: gender, Indigenous peoples and small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Specifically, this thesis examines inclusive measures within five recent trade agreements: the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), Canada-European Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement and Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement. The overarching goal of this thesis is to offer a practical solution that may ameliorate the discontent surrounding globalised free trade in a socioeconomically sustainable method based on Canada’s approach to inclusive trade.
External DOI