Regulation of the Gene Encoding Thrombin-Activable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor
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Disequilibrium between coagulation and fibrinolysis can lead to severe haemostatic disorders such as thrombosis and hemophilia. Thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a carboxypeptidase B-like pro-enzyme that, once activated, attenuates fibrinolysis. TAFI may also mediate connections between coagulation and inflammation. Studies have associated high plasma TAFI levels with risk for thrombotic diseases. Interestingly, steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progestogens used in hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptive preparations, have been shown to affect plasma TAFI levels. Regulation of the expression of the gene encoding TAFI, CBP2, is likely an important determinant of the role of the TAFI pathway in vivo; this concept motivated the investigations described in this thesis. In Chapter 2, the results of my research lead to the identification of key transcription factors regulating CPB2. Specifically, we described the binding of NF-Y and HNF-1 to the CPB2 promoter. NF-Y was shown to be an important factor for the basal CPB2 promoter activity. Binding of HNF-1 is essential for the activity of the promoter and is potentially responsible for the liver specific expression of CPB2. In Chapter 3, we set to investigate the effect of female sex hormone on hepatic expression of CPB2. We demonstrated that the levels of TAFI protein secreted from cultured hepatoma cells (HepG2) are decreased by 17beta-estradiol and progesterone. The change in protein expression was paralleled by decreases in CPB2 mRNA abundance and promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the CPB2 promoter indicated that the genomic effects of estrogen and progesterone are likely mediated via a non-classical mechanism. In Chapter 4, we evaluated the effects of various inflammatory mediators on expression of the gene encoding mouse TAFI (Cpb2). Our results showed that Cpb2 mRNA abundance and promoter activity are up-regulated by inflammatory mediators IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha. We also showed that TNFalpha mediates its effect via the binding of NFkB. Additionally, our results suggest that TNFalpha promotes the binding of NFkB to the promoter by increasing its translocation to the nucleus. The NFkB site is not conserved between human and mouse and may explained the different responses to inflammation observed in vivo.