Numerical and Experimental Studies of Natural Convective Heat Transfer From Vertical and Inclined Narrow Flat Plates and Short Cylinders
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Natural convective heat transfer from flat plates and short cylinders inclined at an angle to the vertical in laminar and transition flow regions with isothermal or constant heat flux conditions have been numerically and experimentally studied. When the width of the plate is relatively small compared to its height, i.e., the plate is narrow, the heat transfer rate can be considerably greater than that predicted by these two-dimensional flow results. When the narrow plate is inclined to the vertical, pressure changes normal to the plate surface arise and these pressure changes can alter the nature and the magnitude of the edge effects. When two narrow inclined rectangular flat plates of the same size separated vertically or horizontally, the flow interaction between these heated plates can have a significant effect on the heat transfer. When relatively small square and circular cylinders with exposed top surfaces inclined to the vertical are used, the interaction of the flow over the surfaces that make up the cylinder and inclination angle have, in general, a considerable effect on the magnitude of the mean heat transfer rate and on the nature of the flow over the cylinder surfaces. In the present numerical studies it has been assumed that the fluid properties are constant except for the density change with temperature which gives rise to the buoyancy forces, this having been treated using the Boussinesq approach. The numerical solution was obtained by numerically solving the full three-dimensional form of the governing equations, these equations being written in dimensionless form. The solution was obtained using a commercial CFD code, FLUENT. Results were only obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7; this being approximately the value of air. In the experimental studies, the average heat transfer rates from cylinders were determined by the transient method, which involves heating the model and then measuring its temperature-time variation while it cools. The average heat transfer rates from the flat plates were determined using a steady state method, which basically involved electrically heating the plate. The tests were carried out inside a large enclosure.