Activation and Capture of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Disulfide by N-Containing Compounds
Ang, Mary Trisha Cabacungan
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The interaction between carbon dioxide (CO2) and N-compounds such as 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) has been extensively studied in the Jessop Lab. Carbon disulfide (CS2) is the sulfur congener of CO2, although it exhibits different reactivity with N-containing compounds. This thesis presents the search for zwitterionic CO2-switchable polarity solvents, new and general reactivity of CS2 with amidines and guanidines, and attempts at using CO2 as a carbonyl source in the synthesis of nitrogen containing compounds. In the second chapter, the reactions of CO2 with various diamines are described. Spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography determined the structure of a solid zwitterionic carbamate salt of CO2 and N,N’-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine. The polarity of the liquid zwitterionic carbamate salt formed with N,N,N’-trimethyl-1,3-propanediamine was measured using UV-Vis and the solvatochromic dye Nile red; its polarity was comparable to previous switchable polarity systems. The CO2 gravimetric uptake of the liquid zwitterionic carbamate salt was 28%, far greater than other solvents for the capture and release of CO2. In the third chapter, it was found that a variety of products can be accessed depending on the structure of the N-base (cyclic or acyclic) upon reaction of the base with CS2 at room temperature. The reaction of CS2 with cyclic amidines produced a cyclic trithioanhydride structure, forming a new C-C bond at a sp2-carbon beta to the imino nitrogen centre. When an amidine was acyclic it led to cleavage and formation of isothiocyanates in near quantitative yields. When a N-base had a N-H bond, CS2 can insert, forming a dimer in the presence of dichloromethane. In the fourth chapter, preliminary investigations are ascribed for synthesis of α-amino acids, amides, and ureas. Carboxylation of ketimines was detected, although the formed carboxylates from a variety of ketimines readily decomposed. Isomerization products of two ketimines were generated with DBU and CO2. Lewis acid catalysts were implemented towards the amidation of benzoylacetic acid and synthesis of ureas. Amidation of benzoylacetic acid did not occur in the presence of Lewis acid catalysts and CO2. Formation of a cyclic tetraalkylurea was afforded in low yields by the use of a diamine, CO2 and Lewis acid catalysts.