Temperature Rise in a Verging Annular Die

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Younes, Georges R.
Giacomin, A. Jeffrey
Gilbert, Peter H.
Coaxial co‑apical conical dies , Converging annular die , Diverging annular die , Extrudate temperature rise , Pipe die cooling requirement , Pipe extrusion throughput , Plastic pipe extrusion , Viscous dissipation , Viscous heating
Plastic pipes, tubes or catheters are extruded by pressure‑driven flows through annular dies. Whereas die lands are straight, the section connecting the die land to the extruder either converges or diverges, converging when the product is smaller than the extruder barrel, and diverging when larger. In this paper, we carefully consider the converging or diverging connecting flows, in spherical coordinates, for the most common configuration: the Newtonian pressure‑driven flow through the annulus between two co‑apical coaxial cones. We derive the exact analytical solution for the velocity profile, and then use this to arrive at the exact analytical solution for the temperature rise caused by viscous heating. We care about this rise because it often governs maximum throughput, since pipe makers must protect the melt from thermal degradation. We find that both the velocity profile, and the temperature profile, peak over the same conical surface, and this surface is nearer the inner die wall. We also provide analytical expressions for the nonlinear pressure profile and the die cooling requirement. We find that this cooling requirement is always higher on the inner cone.
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