Development of High Capacitance Films for Electrical Energy Storage Using Electrophoretic Deposition of BaTiO3 on Ultrasonically Etched Ni
Electrophoretic Deposition , Energy Storage , Barium Titanate , Zeta Potential , Advanced Ceramics , Capacitors
High capacitance devices were developed using rapid electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate (BaTiO3) on ultrasonically etched nickel (Ni) substrates. The microstructural and electrical properties of films with varying thicknesses, sintering temperatures and substrate etching times were investigated to study their effect on the capacitance. Although increasing the capacitance was the primary goal, decreasing manufacturing costs and reducing environmental impact was also considered. After confirming the tetragonality and particle size of a 0.2 µm hydrothermal powder, it was dispersed in an aqueous-organic mixture of ethanol, acetone and water. A zeta potential of 50 mV was observed at the EPD pH level (6.8). Flocculation or coagulation was not likely in this situation. Therefore, mixing water with an organic solution was an effective method for reducing environmental impact while maintaining deposition quality. The presence of BaCO3 in the films was proven using X-ray diffraction. Other impurities such as TiO2 and NiO were not detected. A significant variation in the average grain size was not observed for films with different thicknesses whereas films sintered at different temperatures displayed greater variation. A bimodal pore size distribution in the samples suggested that the powder was agglomerated after deposition due to a high deposition voltage (20 V). Rapid deposition times of 2 to 8 seconds offered a potential for cost reduction compared to longer deposition times implemented in industry. Therefore the increased porosity was accepted. The dielectric constant of the films increased from 2900 to 6730 as the thickness increased from 17.75 µm to 47.5 µm. The dissipation factor decreased from 0.27 to 0.06 with increasing thickness. This behavior was attributed to a low dielectric constant interfacial layer and a higher dielectric leakage current at smaller thicknesses. The dielectric constant increased from 1700 to 6350 and the dissipation factor decreased from 0.23 to 0.04 as the sintering temperature increased from 1150°C to 1300°C. This was attributed to an increase in tetragonality with grain size and a decrease in porosity with sintering temperature. Finally, etching a substrate for 60 seconds increased its capacitance by 27.47% and using ultrasonic agitation further increased the capacitance by 8.75%.