Developing physical activity interventions for adults with spinal cord injury. Part 1: a comparison of social cognitions across actors, intenders, and nonintenders

Thumbnail Image
Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.
Tomasone, Jennifer
Latimer-Cheung, Amy
Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.
Basset-Gunter, Rebecca
Wolfe, Dalton L.
Leisure time physical activity , Exercise , Paraplegia , Tetraplegia , Health Action Process Approach
Objective: This article is the first in a three-part series focused on designing theory-based interventions to increase leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this first study was to compare social cognitions for LTPA between people classified as LTPA actors, intenders, and nonintenders, as per Schwarzer's Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model. Method: Participants were 238 men and women living with a SCI (M age = 44.14, SD = 12.74; 44.5% paraplegic) who were subsequently classified as LTPA actors (n = 105), intenders (n = 73), or nonintenders (n = 60). Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed the following HAPA constructs: LTPA outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intentions, planning, and action control. Results: A MANCOVA revealed significant between-groups differences for all variables (ps < .001). For all of the measures, actors scored significantly higher than intenders who, in turn, scored significantly higher than nonintenders. Conclusion/implications: It is both theoretically and practically important to distinguish between LTPA nonintenders, intenders, and actors when developing LTPA-enhancing interventions for people with SCI. These distinctions inform the design and testing of the interventions reported in the two accompanying articles.