Host-guest chemistry between cucurbit[7]uril and neutral and cationic guests

Thumbnail Image
Wyman, Ian
Chemistry , Supramolecular Chemistry , Host-guest Chemistry , Organic Chemistry , Physical Chemistry , Cucurbiturils , Local Anaesthetics
This thesis describes the host-guest chemistry between cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and various series of guests, including neutral polar organic solvents, bis(pyridinium)alkane dications, local anaesthetics, acetylcholine analogues, as well as succinylcholine and decamethonium analogues, in aqueous solution. A focus of this thesis is the effects of varying the chemical structures within different series of guests upon the nature of the host-guest chemistry, such as the relative position and orientation of the guest relative to the CB[7] cavity, and the strengths of the binding affinities. The binding affinities of polar organic solvents with CB[7] depend upon the hydrophobic effect and dipole-quadrupole interactions. The polar guests align themselves so that their dipole moment is perpendicular to the quadrupole moment of CB[7]. The binding strengths of acetone and acetophenone to CB[7] decrease in the presence of alkali metals. Discrete 1:1 and 2:1 host-guest complexes are formed between CB[7] and a series of bis(pyridinium)alkane guests. In most cases the CB[7] initially occupies the aliphatic linker when the 1:1 complex is formed and migrates to the terminal regions as the second CB[7] is added. When bulky, hydrophobic tert-butyl substituents are present, however, the CB[7] occupies the terminal pyridinium region and not the central linker. Supramolecular complexes between CB[7] and a series of local anaesthetics have binding affinities 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than reported values with beta-cyclodextrin. The first pKa values of the guests increase by 0.5-1.9 units upon complexation. The binding positions of the guests within CB[7] differ in neutral and acidic media, with the systems thus behaving as pH-activated switches. With supramolecular complexes between CB[7] and various cationic cholines and their phosphonium analogues, the CB[7] cavity is occupied by the charge-diffuse cationic region. The binding affinities and positions vary depending on the nature of the onium group as well as the substituents within the guest molecule. Host-guest complexes between CB[7] and dicationic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have very strong 1:1 binding affinities, with 2:1 binding being significantly weaker. These binding affinities are related to the nature of the cationic onium groups, and the length and hydrophobicity of the connecting linkers.
External DOI