Experimental Study of Grain Interactions on Rolling Texture Development in Face-Centered Cubic Metals

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Ray, Atish
Rolling texture, cube, brass, copper, goss, grain interaction, plane strain compression, aluminum, quaternion
There exists considerable debate in the texture community about whether grain interactions are a necessary factor to explain the development of deformation textures in polycrystalline metals. Computer simulations indicate that grain interactions play a significant role, while experimental evidence shows that the material type and starting orientation are more important in the development of texture and microstructure. A balanced review of the literature on face-centered cubic metals shows that the opposing viewpoints have developed due to the lack of any complete experimental study which considers both the intrinsic (material type and starting orientation) and extrinsic (grain interaction) factors. In this study, a novel method was developed to assemble ideally orientated crystalline aggregates in 99.99\% aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu) to experimentally evaluate the effect of grain interactions on room temperature deformation texture. Ideal orientations relevant to face-centered cubic rolling textures, Cube $\{100\}\left<001\right>$, Goss $\{110\}\left<001\right>$, Brass $\{110\}\left<1\bar{1}2\right>$ and Copper $\{112\}\left<11\bar{1}\right>$ were paired in different combinations and deformed by plane strain compression to moderate strain levels of 1.0 to 1.5. Orientation dependent mechanical behavior was distinguishable from that of the neighbor-influenced behavior. In interacting crystals the constraint on the rolling direction shear strains ($\gamma_{_{XY}}, \gamma_{_{XZ}}$) was found to be most critical to show the effect of interactions via the evolution of local microstructure and microtexture. Interacting crystals with increasing deformations were observed to gradually rotate towards the S-component, $\{123\}\langle\bar{6}\bar{3}4\rangle$. Apart from the average lattice reorientations, the interacting crystals also developed strong long-range orientation gradients inside the bulk of the crystal, which were identified as accumulating misorientations across the deformation boundaries. Based on a statistical procedure using quaternions, the orientation and interaction related heterogeneous deformations were characterized by three principal component vectors and their respective eigenvalues for both the orientation and misorientation distributions. For the case of a medium stacking fault energy metal like Cu, the texture and microstructure development depends wholly on the starting orientations. Microstructural instabilities in Cu are explained through a local slip clustering process, and the possible role of grain interactions on such instabilities is proposed. In contrast, the texture and microstructure development in a high stacking fault energy metal like Al is found to be dependent on the grain interactions. In general, orientation, grain interaction and material type were found to be key factors in the development of rolling textures in face-centered cubic metals and alloys. Moreso, in the texture development not any single parameter can be held responsible, rather, the interdependency of each of the three parameters must be considered. In this frame-work polycrystalline grains can be classified into four types according to their stability and susceptibility during deformation.
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