Mercury Biomagnification in Subtropical Reservoirs of Eastern China

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Date
2014-07-03
Authors
Razavi, N. Roxanna
Keyword
Limnology , Reservoirs , Aquatic Food Webs , Mercury , Subtropics , Asian Carp , Ecotoxicology , China , Stable Isotopes
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant, yet Hg biomagnification, the increase in Hg with trophic level, remains poorly characterized in many regions, especially at subtropical latitudes. The present study assessed subtropical reservoirs of eastern China, which provided an opportunity to quantify Hg biomagnification under highly altered conditions that included high atmospheric Hg deposition, use of reservoirs for fisheries, manipulation of food webs through stocking and high fishing pressure, and increasing eutrophication. Despite China’s Hg emission and deposition rates that are among the highest worldwide, low fish Hg concentrations and Hg biomagnification rates were found; this was explained by food web structure and fish species characteristics. Stocked species occupied lower trophic levels and had significantly lower Hg concentrations relative to wild fishes. Evidence of decreased Hg concentrations with eutrophication (as indicated by chlorophyll-a) was observed, suggesting algal biodilution and/or somatic growth dilution. Relative to temperate lakes, zooplankton density dilution may also be causing reduced Hg concentrations in subtropical biota. Hydrogeomorphic features, such as water retention time and percent crop cover, explained Hg bioaccumulation factors and Hg concentrations at the base of the food web. Eutrophication and hydrogeomorphic features also influenced the bioavailability of selenium, which can protect against the toxicity of Hg at adequate concentrations, and the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid, a beneficial fatty acid, in the planktivorous Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). This may indicate that the risk of exposure to the neurotoxicant methylmercury relative to benefits of fish consumption may increase with eutrophication in some fish species. Overall, the findings of this study suggest food web structure, eutrophication, and hydrogeomorphic features together explain low Hg concentrations in anthropogenically modified subtropical reservoirs in eastern China.
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