Theory and applications of light-matter interactions in quantum dot nanowire photonic crystal systems
Engineered Quantum Systems , Quantum Light-Matter Interactions , Nanophotonics , Photonic Crystals , Quantum Optics
Photonic crystal slabs coupled with quantum dipole emitters allow one to control quantum light-matter interactions and are a promising platform for quantum information science technologies; however their development has been hindered by inherent fabrication issues. Inspired by recent nanowire growth techniques and opportunities in fundamental quantum nanophotonics, in this thesis we theoretically investigate light-matter interactions in nanowire photonic crystal structures with embedded quantum dots, a novel engineered quantum system, for applications in quantum optics. We develop designs for currently fabricable structures, including finite-size effects and radiative loss, and investigate their fundamental properties using photonic band structure calculations, finite-difference time-domain computations, and a rigorous photonic Green function technique. We study and engineer realistic nanowire photonic crystal waveguides for single photon applications whose performance can exceed that of state-of-the-art slab photonic crystals, and design a directed single photon source. We then develop a powerful quantum optical formalism using master equation techniques and the photonic Green function to understand the quantum dynamics of these exotic structures in open and lossy photonic environments. This is used to explore the coupling of a pair of quantum dots in a nanowire photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating long-lived entangled states and a system with a completely controllable Hamiltonian capable of simulating a wide variety of quantum systems and entering a unique regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics characterized by strong exchange-splitting. Lastly, we propose and study a "metamaterial" polariton waveguide comprised of a nanowire photonic crystal waveguide with an embedded quantum dot in each unit cell, and explain the properties of both infinite and finite-sized structures using a Green function approach. We show that an external quantum dot can be strongly coupled to these novel waveguides, an achievement which has never been demonstrated in a solid-state platform.