Reliability of Isometric Neck Strength and Electromyography Measures Relevant for Concussion Prevention in Athletes

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Almosnino, Sivan
Neck , Electromyography , Muscle Strength , Rate of Force Development , Teager Kaiser Energy Operator , Muscle Activation Onset , Electromechanical Delay , Concussions , Sports , Reliability
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the between-day reliability of selected force-time curve indices and the activity onset of selected neck muscles in the performance of maximal, isometric contractions in five different directions. The measures extracted are deemed important for future investigations aimed at exploring the role of cervical musculature in reduction of concussion occurrences in sports. Twenty eight physically active male participants performed two testing sessions separated by 7-8 days. In each testing session, force and surface electromyography (EMG) data were recorded simultaneously in a custom-made testing apparatus whilst subjects performed four randomized maximal isometric efforts in extension, flexion, and left and right lateral bending and protraction. The variables examined were the peak force, rate of force development (RFD), time to 50% of peak force and bilateral activity onset of the splenius capitis, upper trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid. For all variables, reliability was assessed by: 1) difference scores between the testing sessions and corresponding 95% confidence intervals; 2) standard error of measurement (SEM), expressed in either the original units of measurement, or as a coefficient of variation; and, 3) Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The results indicated that for all variables, in all testing directions, no differences in scores were observed between the first and second testing sessions. The precision of measurement for all measures, barring muscle onsets obtained in protraction, was deemed acceptable for future clinical application. ICC score ranges for force-time curve-based measurements were high (< 0.90), while for muscle onsets, the ICC ranges are low to moderate (0.23 -0.79). Based on these results, it was concluded that, in highly active male participants, a dedicated familiarization session for the elimination of potential learning effects is not required. In addition, for the majority of testing directions, the force-time curve-based variables as well as muscle activity onsets are recorded with a sufficiently high level of precision, which make them prime candidates for utilization in future investigations concerned with quantitative assessment of cervical musculature function.
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