Temperature control instrumentation for scanning tunnelling microscopy
Visser, Jason Willem
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This thesis describes three different design projects that are intellectually connected by the fact that they all involve the development of apparatus to facilitate the precise control of sample temperature in modern microscopes. The first project is a low-temperature sample stage, for a beetle-type scanning tunnelling microscope. The design for this sample stage, and images taken on it with atomic resolution at 114 K are presented. This stage has the capability for variable-temperature sample cooling, which is also discussed. The second project is a set of low- and variable-temperature isothermal radiation shields for a new microscope that is currently being designed and assembled by our research group. These shields provide temperature control between 5 K and room temperature, with measured stability better than +/- 0.1 K. Controlled and stable temperature changes at rates up to 1.5 K per minute have been produced. The shields are modular and can easily accommodate future modifications. The design for the shields, along with their cooling and temperature control capabilities, is presented. The third project is a new stage design for heating, cleaning, and transferring metal and semiconductor samples. Also for use with the new microscope, this stage uses electron bombardment to provide precision temperature control between room temperature to temperatures in excess of 1250 C‰. With this stage, the sample temperature can be determined by measuring the power applied to the sample. The design of this stage, its heating performance, and a method to calculate the sample temperature is presented.