The Effect of Preeclampsia on Renal Function: Cross-Sectional Studies of Postpartum Preeclamptics and Women Who Were Destined to Develop Preeclampsia
Zhan, Jing (Janelle)
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Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complication that is new-onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, subclinical renal dysfunction may be apparent earlier in gestation prior to the clinical presentation of PE. Although the maternal syndrome of PE resolves early postpartum, women with a history of PE are at higher risk of renal dysfunction later in life. Mineral metabolism, such as phosphate balance is heavily dependent on renal function, yet, phosphate handling in women with a history of PE is largely unknown. To investigate whether women with a history of PE would exhibit changes in phosphate metabolism compared to healthy parous women, phosphate loading test was used. Women with or without a history of PE, who were 6 months to 5 years postpartum, were recruited for this study. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the oral dosing of 500mg phosphate solution. Biochemical markers of phosphate metabolism and renal function were evaluated. In order to assess the difference in renal function alteration between first trimester women who were or were not destined to develop PE, plasma cystatin C concentration was analysed. After phosphate loading, women with a history of PE had significantly elevated serum phosphate at both 1- and 2-hour, while controls had higher urine phosphate:urine creatinine excretion ratio at 1-hour than women with a history of PE. Women with a history of PE had no changes in intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentration throughout the study period, whereas controls had elevated iPTH at 1-hour from baseline. In terms of renal function in the first trimester, there was no difference in plasma cystatin C concentration between women who were or were not destined to develop PE. The elevation of serum phosphate in women with a history of PE could be due to the delay in phosphate excretion. Prolong elevation of serum phosphate can have serious consequences later in life. Thus, oral phosphate challenge may serve as a useful method of early screening for altered phosphate metabolism and renal function.