Detection and Grading of Prostate Cancer in Temporal Enhanced Ultrasound using Convolutional Neural Networks
Prostate cancer is the most common non-dermatological cancer amongst men in the developed world. The current definitive diagnosis is core needle biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasound. However, this method suffers from low sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancer. Recently, a new ultrasound based tissue typing approach has been proposed, known as temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS). In this approach, a set of temporal ultrasound frames is collected from a stationary tissue location without any intentional mechanical excitation. The main aim of this thesis is to implement a deep learning-based solution for prostate cancer detection and grading using TeUS data. In the proposed solution, convolutional neural networks are trained to extract high-level features from time domain TeUS data in temporally and spatially adjacent frames in nine in vivo prostatectomy cases. This approach avoids information loss due to feature extraction and also improves cancer detection rate. The output likelihoods of two TeUS arrangements are then combined to form our novel decision support system. This deep learning-based approach results in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.80 and 0.73 for prostate cancer detection and grading, respectively, in leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. Recently, multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has been utilized to improve detection rate of aggressive prostate cancer. In this thesis, for the first time, we present the fusion of mp-MRI and TeUS for characterization of prostate cancer to compensates the deficiencies of each image modalities and improve cancer detection rate. The results obtained using TeUS are fused with those attained using consolidated mp-MRI maps from multiple MR modalities and cancer delineations on those by multiple clinicians. The proposed fusion approach yields the AUC of 0.86 in prostate cancer detection. The outcomes of this thesis emphasize the viable potential of TeUS as a tissue typing method. Employing this ultrasound-based intervention, which is non-invasive and inexpensive, can be a valuable and practical addition to enhance the current prostate cancer detection.
URI for this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/1974/15249
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