A New DC UPS for DC Power Distribution System in Data Center
In recent years, the 380V DC and 48V DC distribution systems have been extensively studied for the latest data centers. It is widely believed that the 380V DC system is a very promising candidate because of its lower cable cost compared to the 48V DC system. However, previous studies have not adequately addressed the low reliability issue with the 380V DC systems due to large amount of series connected batteries. In this thesis, a quantitative comparison for the two systems has been presented in terms of efficiency, reliability and cost. A new multi-port DC UPS with both high voltage output and low voltage output is proposed. When utility ac is available, it delivers power to the load through its high voltage output and charges the battery through its low voltage output. When utility ac is off, it boosts the low battery voltage and delivers power to the load form the battery. Thus, the advantages of both systems are combined and the disadvantages of them are avoided. High efficiency is also achieved as only one converter is working in either situation. Details about the design and analysis of the new UPS are presented. For the main AC-DC part of the new UPS, a novel bridgeless three-level single-stage AC-DC converter is proposed. It eliminates the auxiliary circuit for balancing the capacitor voltages and the two bridge rectifier diodes in previous topology. Zero voltage switching, high power factor, and low component stresses are achieved with this topology. Compared to previous topologies, the proposed converter has a lower cost, higher reliability, and higher efficiency. The steady state operation of the converter is analyzed and a decoupled model is proposed for the converter. For the battery side converter as a part of the new UPS, a ZVS bidirectional DC-DC converter based on self-sustained oscillation control is proposed. Frequency control is used to ensure the ZVS operation of all four switches and phase shift control is employed to regulate the converter output power. Detailed analysis of the steady state operation and design of the converter are presented. Theoretical, simulation, and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed concepts.