Are Intensities, Types, or Patterns of Movement Behaviours Most Strongly Associated With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among Children?
Purpose: The way children move over the entire 24-hour day influences their health. The purpose of this study was to determine which intensities, patterns, and types of 24-hour movement behaviours are most strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among children. Methods: A total of 369 children aged 10-13 years were studied. Participants wore an Actical accelerometer, a Garmin Forerunner 220 GPS logger, and completed an activity and sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Data from these instruments were combined to estimate the average minutes/day spent in 14 intensities, 11 types, and 14 patterns of movement while sleeping and engaging in sedentary behaviour and physical activity. Body mass index, resting heart rate, and systolic blood pressure values were combined to create a cardiometabolic risk factor score. Partial least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between the 39 movement behaviour characteristics and the cardiometabolic risk factor score. The variable importance in projection (VIP) values were used to determine and rank important movement behaviour characteristics. There was evidence of interaction by biological maturity and analyses were therefore conducted separately in the 50% least and 50% most mature participants. Results: For the least biologically mature participants, 15 of the 39 movement behaviour characteristics had important VIP value scores; eight of these reflected movement intensities (particularly moderate and vigorous intensities), six reflected movement patterns, and one reflected a movement type. For the most biologically mature participants, 13 of the 39 movement behaviour characteristics had important VIP value scores, with five reflecting intensities (particularly moderate and vigorous intensities), five reflecting patterns, and three reflecting types of movement. Conclusion: These findings suggest several different movement behaviour characteristics are associated with children’s cardiometabolic health. Time spent in movement intensities within the moderate and vigorous intensity ranges appear to be the most important movement behaviour characteristics for cardiometabolic risk factors.