I. Progress in Directed ortho Metalation and II. Generating Chirality in Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica
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Chapter 1 constitutes a review of current methods of aromatic substitution focusing on Directed ortho Metalation (DoM) and Directed remote Metalation (DreM). The field of mesoporous silica is reviewed in Chapter 2, focusing on the preparation, characterization, and application of mesoporous silicates. Chapter 3 presents an introduction of phosphorus based Directed Metalation Groups (DMGs). The development of the directed ortho metalation (DoM) reaction of the tetraethyl phosphorodiamidate DMG is described. In addition to being one of the most powerful DMGs, migration of the OPO(NEt2)2 group to the ortho and remote positions is demonstrated, constituting new reactions as well as affording new organophosphorus compounds. Attempts to improve the synthetic utility of the DMG led to the discovery and optimization of a two new nickel-catalyzed cross coupling reactions, which is described in Chapter 4. Both the OPO(NEt2)2 and OCONEt2 DMGs are demonstrated to undergo cross coupling reactions with aryl boronic acids. By means of DoM and cross coupling tactics, the concise synthesis of a chiral binaphthol bridged silasesquioxane is described. Chapter 5 explores new methods to prepare chiral periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials using this monomer. PMOs are prepared by the co-condensation of a relatively small amount of chiral binaphthyl dopant which acts to twist the bulk prochiral biphenylene framework.