An In Vitro Murine Model to Study Intestinal Mesenteric Afferent Activity in Response to Luminal Fatty Acid Stimuli
Webster, William Andrew
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Obesity is pandemic. Pharmacological treatment development depends on modeling the regulation of feeding, particularly by free fatty acids (FFA). Most models have been employed in the rat in vivo, and show FFA-stimulated intestinal satiety signals are dependent on the fat’s acyl chain-length, involve cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion, and are mediated by vagal afferents. I hypothesized that an in vitro mouse model could be employed, with sensitivity to measure afferent responses to nutrient stimuli. Male C57BL/6N mice were killed, the intestine harvested en bloc, and a jejunal section dissected with neurovascular mesenteric arcade emanating centrally. The tissue was placed in a Krebs-superfused chamber, the lumen cannulated with the outlet open to drain, and Krebs or other mediators were continuously perfused intraluminally. The dissected afferent nerve was placed in a suction electrode for extracellular recording. Afferent responses to distension and the perfusion of mediators (e.g. CCK or FFA) were tested. Preparations from normal mice (no surgery), or from mice following chronic subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham operation, were used to assess vagal afferent contributions. Luminally-perfused CCK (100 nM) increased afferent firing. This response was abolished with the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide (10 µM). The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) sodium butyrate (30 mM) potentiated firing. The long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) sodium oleate (1-300 mM) activated concentration-dependent firing (EC50=25.35 mM) that was significantly greater at 30 mM than that evoked by butyrate. Lorglumide (30 µM) abolished the oleate (30 mM) response. The L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) inhibitor nicardipine (3 µM), intraluminally, potentiated the oleate response, while bath application abolished it. Vagotomy attenuated the oleate response. Vagotomy abolished the intraluminal CCK (100 nM) response, and attenuated the response to bath-superfused CCK. These findings support FFA chain-length-dependent mesenteric afferent activation and CCK involvement in oleate-induced firing, and suggest LTCC mediation of excitatory and inhibitory oleate response transduction pathways. The murine oleate response was shown to be mostly vagally-mediated, with some spinal contribution, and both vagal and spinal contributions to CCK responses were suggested. These data provide a basis for further investigation in vitro of cellular and molecular mechanisms of afferent satiety signals, and ultimately of obesity pathogenesis.