Moduli Spaces of K3 Surfaces with Large Picard Number
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Morrison has constructed a geometric relationship between K3 surfaces with large Picard number and abelian surfaces. In particular, this establishes that the period spaces of certain families of lattice polarized K3 surfaces (which are closely related to the moduli spaces of lattice polarized K3 surfaces) and lattice polarized abelian surfaces are identical. Therefore, we may study the moduli spaces of such K3 surfaces via the period spaces of abelian surfaces. In this thesis, we will answer the following question: from the moduli space of abelian surfaces with endomorphism structure (either a Shimura curve or a Hilbert modular surface), there is a natural map into the moduli space of abelian surfaces, and hence into the period space of abelian surfaces. What sort of relationship exists between the moduli spaces of abelian surfaces with endomorphism structure and the moduli space of lattice polarized K3 surfaces? We will show that in many cases, the endomorphism ring of an abelian surface is just a subring of the Clifford algebra associated to the N\'eron-Severi lattice of the abelian surface. Furthermore, we establish a precise relationship between the moduli spaces of rank 18 polarized K3 surfaces and Hilbert modular surfaces, and between the moduli spaces of rank 19 polarized K3 surfaces and Shimura curves. Finally, we will calculate the moduli space of E_8^2 + <4>-polarized K3 surfaces as a family of elliptic K3 surfaces in Weierstrass form and use this new family to find families of rank 18 and 19 polarized K3 surfaces which are related to abelian surfaces with real multiplication or quaternionic multipliction via the Shioda-Inose construction.